- Role of the Commission
- Regulated Utilities
- Consumer Information
- Important or Pending Cases at the Commission
- Local, Regional, and National Issues
In 1999, the General Assembly passed legislation restructuring the electric industry in Delaware. Prior to restructuring, the generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power by investor-owned utilities was fully regulated by the PSC. With restructuring, the generation of electric power became deregulated, leaving only distribution services under the regulatory control of the PSC. The pricing of electric transmission is regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).
- Customers of the Delaware Electric Cooperative and Delmarva Power may now have a choice in which company will provide their electric energy supply (distribution of electric will still remain with the respective utility). The List of Certified Electric Suppliers provides the telephone numbers and websites of electric suppliers that may be offering services to residential, commercial or industrial customers. This list is updated as often as information becomes available and is a list of all certified companies, the Commission would urge customers to contact all potential suppliers to determine if a company is currently offering service. Before switching, we encourage you to look at this list of questions to ask potential electric suppliers.
Electric suppliers must be certified by the Commission prior to offering electric supply service to consumers. Requirements for obtaining certification can be found in Del. Admin C. Section 3001. Questions regarding the process for electric supplier certification should be e-mailed to Malika Davis.
- Filing Cover Sheet
- Application for an Electric Supplier Certificate. The following must be provided in order to complete the applicants application package:
- $750 filing fee (check should be made payable to State of Delaware Public Service Commission)
- Signed, sworn, notarized verification of all information contained in the application
- Certificate of good standing issued by the Delaware Secretary of State
- After March 16, 2015, the Delaware Public Service Commission will no longer accept applications filed by paper. Subsequent docket filings and reports must also be filed electronically through DelaFile and will no longer be accepted by means other than DelaFile. Only registered DelaFile users can file an initial application, subsequent docket filing or report in DelaFile. Visit the PSC’s website for a link to DelaFile Help Documentation under the Services heading. If further assistance is required a System Administrator at the PSC can assist you by calling 302-736-7500 or emailing Delafileadmin@state.de.us.
- General Information
- For general consumer information, including how to file a complaint, please visit our Consumer Assistance page.
- Delaware Public Service Commission Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
- Delmarva Power provides important consumer information on billing, customer service issues and safety.
- Energy Procurement for Standard Offer Service ("SOS") customers of Delmarva Power and Light
- Consumer Reference - The following websites offer consumer information about electric issues:
- The Delaware Division of Energy and Climate offers educational material on a wide variety of energy issues, including energy conservation, energy and the environment, green energy, and others.
- Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)
- U.S. Department of Energy
A list of electric related cases filed with the Commission is available on the Commission's Regulated Utility Filings page. Cases filed after July 7, 2014 are available through the DelaFile E-filing system.
Following is a list of cases that have, or are likely to, generate a significant amount of public interest. To assist the public with participation in these matters, links to the application or formal complaint, the procedural schedule (if applicable), and Commission Orders entered in a case are provided here. In limited cases, additional documents are available for viewing from the website.
- PSC Docket 14-0559 – IN THE MATTER OF INTEGRATED RESOURCE PLANNING FOR THE PROVISION OF STANDARD OFFER SERVICE BY DELMARVA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY UNDER DEL.C. §1007(C) & (D) - (FILED DECEMBER 02, 2014)
All case related documents are available for review through the DelaFile E-filing system.
- PSC Docket No. 14-193 - On June 18, 2014, Delmarva Power & Light Company filed an application seeking approval of a proposed merger between Exelon Corporation, Pepco Holdings, Inc., and Purple Acquisition Corporation.
- Wednesday, February 18, 2015, 1pm, Delaware Legislative Hall, House Chamber, 411 Legislative Blvd., Dover, DE
- Thursday and Friday, February 19-20, 2015, 10am, Legislative Hall, House Chamber, 411 Legislative Blvd., Dover, Dover DE
The Public Service Commission Staff welcomes comments from Delmarva Power and Light customers and other interested parties regarding the proposed merger. Comments can also be sent via e-mail to the Public Service Commission at firstname.lastname@example.org, referencing PSC Docket 14-193, or by using the Public Comments link on the Public Service Commission electronic filing system, DelaFile.
Evidentiary hearings have been scheduled for PSC Docket 14-193 - the Exelon/Pepco Holdings Incorporated merger which includes Delmarva Power & Light Company, as follows:
- PSC Docket 14-144 - On April 1, 2014, Delmarva Power filed an application with revised tariffs reflecting the new Standard Offer Service ("SOS") rates resulting from the 2013-2014 RFP procurement process, its revised Reasonable Allowance for Retail Margin ("RARM"), its revised Procurement Cost Adjustment ("PCA")and its revised RPS compliance costs, with a proposed effective date for the tariff changes of June 1, 2014. The Company reports that the proposed tariff and rate changes for a residential customer using 1,000 kWh per month on an annual average basis will result in a monthly bill increase of approximately $0.32 (or an increase of 0.2%). Interested persons may file written comments or objections to the proposed rates and tariff changes on or before July 18, 2014. Please consult the calendar/agenda for dates and times of Commission meetings. See Order No. 8557 opening the docket.
- PSC Docket No. 14-41 - Delmarva Power & Light Company's Application for Approval of the 2014 Program for the Procurement of Solar Renewable Energy Credits. Please see info on the Renewable Portfolio Standard's Webpage
- IN THE MATTER OF THE INVESTIGATION INTO THE SOLICITATION PRACTICES OF STARION ENERGY PA, INC. (FILED OCTOBER 24, 2013) -PSC DOCKET NO. 395-13
- On November 5, 2013, the Commission opened a docket to investigate complaints regarding Starion, its agents, or both and the business practices of the company and its agents in soliciting Delaware customers. See Order No. 8477 for more information.
- PSC Docket No. 13-384 - In the Matter of the Application of Delmarva Power & Light Company for Approval of Its Proposed Forward Looking Rate Plan (filed October 2, 2013)
- Ex Parte Communication to Commissioner Winslow
- PSC Docket No. 13-250 (Filed June 20, 2013) - On June 20, 2013, Representative John Kowalko and State Senators Dave Lawson and Gary Simpson, on behalf of nineteen other members of the Delaware Legislature, filed a Petition requesting the Delaware Public Service Commission open a docket to review the appropriate level of detail contained in Delmarva Power & Light Company's monthly billing statements to its customers.
- On July 2, 2013, the Commission issued Order No. 8403 opening a docket to review the appropriate level of Delmarva Power & Light Company bill transparency, assigning Staff responsibility, identifying the proposed approach for Staff review, and setting periods for public notice and intervention.
- After a series of workshops held in the fall of 2013 and spring of 2014 the Commission approved, at its April 29, 2014 Meeting, the recommendations of Commission Staff and Order No. 8556 which directed Delmarva to execute Phase I of II of the Company's Proposal to make the appropriate level of changes to its electric bills effective July 1, 2014.
- It is anticipated that Phase II of this docket will commence during either the 4th quarter of 2014 or the 1st quarter of 2015.
- PSC Docket No. 13-152 (Filed April 16, 2013) - On April 16, 2013 the PSC Staff filed a Motion requesting a docket be opened for the purpose of investigating Delmarva Power & Light's investment levels for its electrical distribution infrastructure.
- On April 22, 2013, Delmarva Power filed a Response to Staff's motion.
- If you wish to participate as a party in this docket, with the right to present evidence and be heard by counsel, you must file a petition to intervene under Rule 21 of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure. You must file that petition on or before June 30, 2013. Please see the public notice of intervention period for more information.
- Commission Staff and Delmarva Power held Public Interactive Discussion Forums and Comment Sessions in each Delaware County. Please see the public notice for more information.
- Memorandum from Kevin Neilson updating Executive Director Howatt on the investigation.
- Presentation for Public Discussion Forums and Public Comment Sessions
- Investment Evaluation prepared by Alternative Strategies Consulting, LLC
- The PSC Staff issued its report regarding their review of Delmarva Power's 2013-2017 infrastructure investment plan. The Staff recommends that Delmarva Power's planned infrastructure and reliability investment over the next five years be limited to no more than $200 million dollars until a more detailed annual review process can be completed, and also recommends re-opening Public Service Commission Docket 50, which measures reliability metrics. Staff will accept written public comments on the report and recommendations until July 17, 2014. Comments can be sent to email@example.com, referencing PSC Docket 13-152. View the full report here
- Public Comment of Caesar Rodney Institute received on Thursday, July 24, 2014
- Public Comment of NRG Energy, Inc. received on Friday, July 18, 2014
- Public Comment of Division of the Public Advocate dated Thursday, July 17, 2014
- Public Comment of Frank CzajKa received on Thursday, July 10, 2014
- Public Comment of Ron Niblett received on Monday, June 23, 2014
- Public Comment of Mike Brown received on Monday, June 23, 2014
- Public Comments
- PSC Docket No. 13-115 (Filed March 22, 2013) - On March 22, 2013, Delmarva Power and Light Company filed an application with the Commission seeking an increase in its electric base rates. Delmarva is seeking approval of a proposed increase in electric base rates of $42,043,757 or 7.38% in total revenues.
- Delmarva Testimony
- Commission Staff Testimony
- Division of the Public Advocate
- Delaware Energy Users Group
- Delmarva Rebuttal Testimony
- Public Notice
- A Hearing Examiner of the Delaware Public Service Commission conducted Public Comment Sessions concerning the above-captioned case in each Delaware County. Please see the public notice for more information.
- On October 17, 2013 Delmarva filed a Motion to stay the Evidentiary Hearings in this matter. On October 22, 2013, the Commission denied Delmarva's Motion to Stay the evidentiary hearings. On October 22, 2013, the Commission denied Delmarva's Motion to Stay the evidentiary hearings.
- On November 13, 14, and 18, 2013, a Hearing Examiner of the Delaware Public Service Commission conducted an Evidentiary Hearing concerning above-captioned case. Please see the public notice for more information.
- Post-Hearing Briefs filed by Parties
- Delmarva's Opening Brief filed Dec. 30, 2013
- Delmarva's Opening Brief - Attachment 1
- Delmarva's Opening Brief - Attachment 2
- Delmarva's Opening Brief - Attachment 3
- Delmarva's Opening Brief - Attachment 4
- Answering Brief of the Division of the Public Advocate ("DPA") filed January 21, 2014
- DPA Answering Brief Attachments A-F
- DPA Answering Brief Attachment G
- DPA Answering Brief Attachments H-L
- Answering Brief of the Delaware Energy Users Group
- Commission Staff's Post-Hearing Brief to the Hearing Examiner
- Appendices to Staff's Post-Hearing Brief to the Hearing Examiner
- Delmarva's Reply Brief filed February 5, 2014
- Hearing Examiner's Report
- On March 4, 2014, Hearing Examiner, Mark Lawrence, released his Findings & Recommendations in this case. Parties to the case have until March 17, 2014 to file any exceptions.
- Exceptions to the Hearing Examiner's Report filed by Parties
- Delmarva's Exceptions
- Delmarva's Exceptions - Attachment A
- Delmarva's Exceptions - Attachment B
- Delmarva's Exceptions - Attachment C
- Delmarva's Exceptions - Attachment D
- Delmarva's Exceptions - Attachment E
- Delmarva's Exceptions - Attachment F
- Delmarva's Exceptions - Attachment G
- Division of the Public Advocate ("DPA")Exceptions
- Delaware Energy Users Group Exceptions
- Commission Staff's Exceptions
- Commission Staff's Exceptions Appendices
- Commission Deliberations
- The Commission will hear this docket on April 1, 2, and 3 at 10 a.m. each day at the Commission's Dover office. The public is welcome to attend. Please check this website prior to that day to ensure that the Commission's deliberation date has not been changed.
- On April 2, 2014, the Commission entered Order No. 8549 at the conclusion of its deliberations.
- PSC Docket No. 13-99 - Delmarva Power & Light Company's application for the approval to enter into a contract to purchase solar renewable energy credits ("SRECs") from Washington Gas Energy Services, Inc. ("WGES"). Please see info on the Renewable Portfolio Standard's Webpage.
- PSC Docket No. 12-526 - Delmarva Power & Light Company's Application for Approval of the 2013 Program for the Procurement of Solar Renewable Energy Credits. Please see info on the Renewable Portfolio Standard's Webpage.
- PSC Docket No. 12-544 - On Dec. 7, 2012, Delmarva Power and Light ("Delmarva") filed the 2012 Integrated Resource Plan ("IRP") . At the Commission meeting on Dec. 18, 2012 the docket was opened authorizing public notice and appointing a hearing examiner. At the March 5, 2013Commission meeting Delmarva agreed to remove the confidentiality restriction on the IRP. The Unsealed 2012 IRP and the Appendix have been released to the public. Please check the Calendar of Events for dates, times, and locations of workshops and Public Comment Sessions (look for Delmarva 2012 IRP or PSC Docket No. 12-544). For more information, visit the Commission's webpage on PSC Docket No. 12-544 Delmarva IRP
- PSC REGULATION DOCKET NO. 49 - IN THE MATTER OF THE ADOPTION OF RULES AND REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT THE PROVISIONS OF 26 DEL. C. CH. 10 RELATING TO THE CREATION OF A COMPETITIVE MARKET FOR RETAIL ELECTRIC SUPPLY SERVICE (OPENED APRIL 27, 1999; RE-OPENED JANUARY 7, 2003; RE-OPENED SEPTEMBER 22, 2009; RE-OPENED SEPTEMBER 7, 2010; RE-OPENED JULY 17, 2012): On July 17, 2012 the Commission entered Order 8187 re-opening the 26 Del. Admin C. Section 3001 "Rules for Certification and Regulation of Electric Suppliers" for further revisions.
- Pursuant to PSC Order No. 8187, the first stakeholder workshop was held on Monday, August 20, 2012. Please see the Public Notice for more information. Additional workshops were held on October 11, 2012, December 14, 2012 and January 24, 2013.
- On July 30, 2013 the Commission entered Order 8424 approving publication of proposed amended Rules for Certification and Regulation of Electric Suppliers and establishing a deadline for comments on the proposed amendments. The hearing scheduled for October 22, 2013 was canceled.
- Comments of AARP
- Comments of Clearview Energy
- Comments of Retail Energy Supply Association
- Comments of Washington Gas Energy Services
- Comments of Starion Energy
- Comments of Federal Trade Commission Staff
- On February 26, 2014 Senator Harris McDowell and Representative Melanie George-Smith submitted a letter to the Commission.
- On April 15, 2014 the Commission entered Order 8545 approving publication of proposed amended Rules for Certification and Regulation of Electric Suppliers and establishing a deadline for comments on the proposed amendments. The Commission will conduct a hearing on the proposed changes on date to be determined.
- PSC Docket No. 11-362: Delmarva Power - Bloom Energy Fuel Cell Application and official filings of the Parties. The Qualified Fuel Cell Project tariff will change monthly. For more information please see the Bloom Energy Fuel Cell webpage.
- PSC Docket No. 11-330: On July 29, 2011 Delmarva Power & Light filed an application with the Commission seeking approval of the Company's proposed Residential Direct Load Control Program. On August 23, 2011 the Commission approved Order No. 8015, which set September 23, 2011 as the intervention deadline. On October 17, 2012 Staff submitted a Report on Delmarva Power & Light's Proposal to Establish a New Residential Air Conditioning Cycling Program
- Response of the Division of the Public Advocate to the Report of the Commission Staff.
- Response of DNREC Secretary O'Mara to the Report of the Commission Staff.
- PSC Regulation Docket No. 56 - Please see info on the Renewable Portfolio Standard's Webpage
- Net Metering/PSC Regulation Docket No. 49 - Regulations Governing Service Supplied by Electrical Corporations: On September 7, 2010, the Commission entered Order No. 7832 reopening Regulation Docket No. 49 and proposing revisions to Regulations Governing Service Supplied by Electrical Corporations as a result of the recent passage of Senate Substitute No. 2 for Senate Bill No. 267 Order No. 7832, among other things, requested comments on the proposed rule revisions, and established a hearing date of December 7, 2010. Due to the comments filed, Staff is proposing to cancel the December 7, 2010 hearing. Additionally, Staff is requesting that any additional comments in reply to original comments filed should be filed by January 14, 2011. On January 14, 2011 comments were filed by the Delaware Solar Energy Coalition and joint reply comments from the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) and The Vote Solar Initiative. A workshop was proposed for Thursday, February 24, 2011. Additional procedural steps will depend on the results of the February workshop.
Initial comments filed and a brief summary are as follows:
- Washington Gas Energy Services Supportive of the proposed revisions.
- Vote Solar Initiative Suggested revisions for clarification and suppported the comments as well as the rule revisions and modifications filed by the Intersate Renewable Energy Council.
- Interstate Renewable Energy Council ("IREC") Suggested substantive rule revisions and modifications to provide certainty for customers seeking net metering and clarifications intended to ensure the provision of net metering consistent with SB267
- Delmarva Power & Light Company ("DPL") Suggested substantive rule revisions and modifications to reflect, among other things, that DPL's billing system can not accommodate the automated billing of aggregated net metering accounts. A proposed tariff to implement net metering was also included in DPL's filing.
- PSC Docket No. 10-198 (Filed June 1, 2010): On June 1, 2010, Delmarva Power and Light Company filed an Application and supporting testimonies seeking Commission approval of two contracts for the purchase and sale of solar renewable energy credits, pursuant to 26 Del. C 1007(b).
- Commission Orders
- Order No. 7836 On September 7, 2010 the Commission issued Order No. 7836 that found the White Oak Contract and the SEU Contract, as revised to reflect the Agreement in Principle resolving the parties' concerns with the SEU contract, are in the public interest and should be approved.
- Order No. 7788 (June 15, 2010) - Commission opens the docket to review Delmarva's application, and establishes a procedural schedule which provides for an evidentiary hearing before the Commission on Tuesday, August 17, 2010.
- Order 7755 extends the deadline for Delmarva's filing of the IRP until no later than October 31, 2010
- Report of the Commission Staff (filed August 6, 2010) - Based on project and other information, Staff's consultant concluded that the pricing, terms and conditions of the Delmarva/White Oak contract are reasonable and that the project is viable. Staff's consultant also found that it would be reasonable for Delmarva to purchase SRECs directly from White Oak at the Delmarva/White Oak Contract price that otherwise would have been purchased by the SEU and later resold to Delmarva at a higher price under the Delmarva/SEU Contract.
- Response of Delmarva Power to the Report of the Commission Staff (filed August 10, 2010) - Delmarva requests Commission approval of the White Oak Contract and the SEU Contract in their entirety as both contracts are reasonable and in the public interest.
- Response of the Division of the Public Advocate to the Report of the Commission Staff (filed August 10, 2010) - recommending that the Commission adopt Staff's Report and direct the parties to implement the recommendations therein. Further recommending that the Commission approve the White Oak-Delmarva contract and reject the Delmarva-Sustainable Energy Utility ("SEU") contract.
- DSEC Comments by Dale Davis (filed August 10, 2010)- disagrees with Staff's report regarding the benefits of the SEU contract.
- SEU Response To Staff Report (filed August 10, 2010) - Commission should approve the Delmarva/SEU contract and reject the conclusions of the Staff's consultants.
- SEU Response To Staff Report by Dr. John Byrne (filed August 10, 2010)- The Delmarva/SEU contract for the purchase and sale of SRECs promotes the public interest.
- Commission Orders
- PSC Docket 04-391 - On April 2, 2013, Delmarva Power filed an application with revised tariffs reflecting the new Standard Offer Service ("SOS") rates resulting from the 2012-2013 RFP procurement process, its revised Reasonable Allowance for Retail Margin ("RARM"), its revised Procurement Cost Adjustment ("PCA")and its revised RPS compliance costs, with a proposed effective date for the tariff changes of June 1, 2013. The Company reports that the proposed tariff and rate changes will result in a proposed monthly reduction to a 1000 kWh "typical residential" bill of $7.99 (a 5.4% monthly decrease). Please consult the calendar/agenda for dates and times of workshops and Commission meetings.
- On May 13, 2014, the Commission ordered that this docket be closed per Order No. 8562. The application was given the new Docket No. 14-144, see above.
- PSC Docket No. 09-311 (Opened August 4, 2009) - By Order No. 7620 (Aug. 4, 2009), the Commission opened a docket to further investigate the benefits to ratepayers of dynamic pricing and other options that may become available with the diffusion of Advanced Metering Infrastructure ("AMI"). After a holding a workshop on September 10, 2009, the Commission Staff will issue a report with its recommendation on or before November 30, 2009. Comments on the Staff report will be due by December 15, 2009, and on December 22, 2009, the Commission shall consider all recommendations and determine how to proceed with respect to dynamic pricing options going forward. On March 22, 2011 Delmarva Power filed its proposal to implement Dynamic Pricing.
- Application and Testimony
- Cover Letter
- Public Notice of Filing
- Staff Report
- Delmarva Power & Light's Response to Staff Report
- Notice of Evidentiary Hearing. The evidentiary hearing in PSC Docket No. 09-311, the dynamic pricing docket, has been CANCELED for Monday, November 14 at 10:00 a.m. at the Carvel Building. A hearing is scheduled for December 20, 2011 at 1:00 pm in the Dover Commission Office.
- Order 8105
- Compliance Filing by Delmarva Power
Update on Joint Finance Committee Letter to Public Service Commission Regarding Electric Suppliers
On February 26, 2014 members of the Delaware General Assembly Joint Finance Committee asked the Delaware Public Service Commission and Office of the Public Advocate to meet with legislative Staff to review "the laws, rules and procedures for certification of Third Party Energy Suppliers". Click here to see a copy of the letter.
A meeting was scheduled for Thursday, April 10th, 2014 in the Senate Majority Hearing Room in Legislative Hall in Dover, Delaware from 12:30pm-2:00pm.
As a result of the February 24, 2011 workshop, a subsequent workshop was held on March 24, 2011. Staff proposed further revisions to the Regulations for the Commission to consider in its meeting of April 19, 2011. Staff's proposed further revisions to the Regulations are intended to reflect the issues raised by participants in filed comments and workshop discussions, as well as include additional modifications, clarifications, and revisions to incorporate existing provisions in the statutes. The Commission approved Staff's proposed further revisions in Order No. 7946 issued April 19, 2011 in Regulation Docket No. 49. The Commission's Order No. 7946 provided for the publication of the proposed further revisions to the Regulations in the Delaware Register of Regulations, as well as a publication of further notice that requires any comments to be filed by June 1, 2011 with a hearing scheduled for June 7, 2011. A copy of Order No. 7946, as published April 27, 2011 in the Delaware Register of Regulations can be found here.
On June 7, 2011 the Commission issued Order No. 7984 approving final revised rules to implement net energy metering pursuant to the requirements of SB267. Order No. 7984 provides, among other things, that Delmarva Power & Light Company would file revised tariffs, applicable Interconnection Standards for Generators, and such other forms as may be necessary to comply with Order No. 7984 within 30 days of the July 10, 2011 publication of these final rules in the Delaware Register of Regulations. A copy of Order No. 7984 can be found here.
On July 22, 2011 Delmarva Power & Light Company filed tariffs and interconnection standards in compliance with Order No. 7984 . On August 9, 2011 Staff will propose to the Commission that a workshop be held to address potential issues with implementation of the proposed tariffs and interconnection standards.
A Workshop To Address Questions And Issues Regarding The Implementation Of Net Metering Tariffs, Interconnection Requirements, And Other Forms Filed In Compliance With Order No. 7984 issued in Regulation Docket No. 49 will be held from 1pm to 5pm on Tuesday, September 13, 2011 in the Commission's Hearing Room located at 861 Silver Lake Blvd., Dover, Delaware. For questions or suggested topics for workshop discussion, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
On November 17, 2011 Delmarva Power & Light Company submitted updates to its previous compliance filing of June 7, 2011 related to the tariffs, documents and other forms to implement the Section 8.0 Net Metering Rules approved by the Commission found here. The Company's updated submittal reflects issues addressed at the workshop of September 13, 2011, previously filed comments, as well as Commission discussions. The documents submitted by the Company can be found here.
- Electric Reliability: Under the Commission's Rules Governing Electric Service Reliability and Quality Standards, adopted by PSC Order No. 7725 (Jan. 7, 2010), Delmarva Power must file an annual performance report: 2013 Annual Performance Report. Delmarva Power 2014 Reliability and Planning Studies Report.
Electric Industry Restructuring in Delaware
- Regulatory Authority: 26 Delaware Code, Chapter 10
- List of Certified Electric Suppliers with additional contact information. Before switching, we encourage you to look at this list of questions to ask potential electric suppliers.
- Delaware Electric Supply Choice Enrollment Information: shows the number and classification of customers switching.